The 9x19mm Parabellum (abbreviated 9mm, 9x19mm or 9x19) cartridge was designed by Georg Luger and introduced in 1902 by the German weapons manufacturer Deutsche Waffen und Munitionsfabriken (DWM) for their Luger semi-automatic pistol. For this reason, it is commonly called the 9mm Luger cartridge, differentiating it from the also-popular 9mm Makarov and 9mm Browning cartridges.

The book Cartridges of the World stated in 2006, the 9x19mm Parabellum is "the world's most popular and widely used military handgun cartridge."

The name Parabellum is derived from the Latin: Si vis pacem, para bellum ("If you seek peace, prepare for war"), which was the motto and telegraphic address of DWM.

In addition to being used by over 60% of police in the U.S., Newsweek credits 9x19 pistol sales with making semi-automatic pistols more popular than revolvers. The popularity of this cartridge can be attributed to the widely held conviction that it is highly effective in police and self-defense use. This cartridge has been shown capable of imparting remote wounding effects known as hydrostatic shock.

Ball and hollow point 9x19mm Parabellum rounds

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